It is often useful to understand the more typical phrases relating to data protection breach claims.

We have prepared a glossary of the usual cyber security phrases you are likely to encounter:

Antivirus – a software designed to prevent, scan, detect and delete viruses from electronic devices. It is also designed to prevent malware such as Trojan horses and spyware landing in your machine

Botnet – a conflation of the word’s ‘robot’ and ‘network’. These are networks of hijacked electronic devices whose purpose is to carry out scams and cyber-attacks

BYOD – Bring your own device – an encouragement for employees to use their own personal devices when connecting to work-related matters

Cloud – software which runs on the Internet or virtual space instead of on an electronic device e.g., Google Drive

Cyber-Attack – a criminal act made by cyber-criminals using electronic devices against single, multiple computers or a network

Cyber security – measures used to defend electronic devices and networks from criminal attacks such as hacking

Denial-of-Service (DoS) – a criminal attack on an electronic device or network with the intention of shutting it down

Digital footprint – electronic data trail left behind after using the Internet

Encryption – changing information into secret code which makes the information unreadable to a would-be cyber attacker

End-user Device – piece of electronic hardware such as a laptop or smartphone

Firewall – security system designed to filter out an untrusted network

Internet of Things (IoT) – physical things such as a smartphone, gaming device, CCTV system etc. which have the technological ability to connect with other devices over the Internet

Patch – repair of a vulnerability identified after the release of an app or a software which improves general security

Phishing – a criminal attempt usually by e-mail to steal information such as login details or bank card details

Ransomware – malware that seizes the victim’s data and locks them out and a ransom is then demanded (usually payable in cryptocurrency) to provide access

Software as a Service (Saas) – known as “on-demand software” – a business hosts apps and they are available to end users over the Internet e.g., Netflix

Social engineering – fraudsters trick or manipulate a victim to give them sensitive information such as a password

Spear phishing – targeted cyber-criminal act with a specific intention to gain sensitive data

Trojan – a type of malicious code or software which is disguised in the form of regular software. Once in it will cause problems corrupting data

Two-factor Authentication (2FA) – a two-step verification which adds an extra layer of security. It is usually paired with your smartphone where you can get a number code to enter when logging into an account

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